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06-Mar-2020 23:51

The term "dumb pipes" is analogous to water pipes used in a city water supply system; in theory, these pipes provide a steady supply of water to all users, regardless of the identity of the user or the users' activities with the water.In a "dumb network", the endpoints are thought to be where the intelligence lies, and as such, proponents argue that the network should leave the management and operation of communications and data transfer to the end users, not a government bureau or Internet company.According to Columbia Law School professor Tim Wu, the best way to explain network neutrality is that a public information network will end up being most useful if all content, websites, and platforms (e.g., mobile devices, video game consoles, etc.) are treated equally.A more detailed proposed definition of technical and service network neutrality suggests that service network neutrality is the loyalty to the paradigm that operation of a service at a certain layer is not influenced by any data other than the data interpreted at that layer, and in accordance with the protocol specification for that layer.A widely cited example of a violation of net neutrality principles was the Internet service provider Comcast's secret slowing ("throttling") of uploads from peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) applications by using forged packets.In July 2017, Verizon Wireless was accused of throttling after users noticed that videos played on Netflix and You Tube were slower than usual, though Verizon commented that it was conducting "network testing" and that net neutrality rules permit "reasonable network management practices".

They pointed out that most features in the lowest level of a communications system have costs for all higher-layer clients, even if those clients do not need the features, and are redundant if the clients have to re-implement the features on an end-to-end basis.Proponents of net neutrality see this as an important component of an "open Internet", wherein policies such as equal treatment of data and open web standards allow those using the Internet to easily communicate, and conduct business and activities without interference from a third party.In contrast, a "closed Internet" refers to the opposite situation, wherein established persons, corporations, or governments favour certain uses, restrict access to necessary web standards, artificially degrade some services, or explicitly filter out content.It can be defined with the following analogy to Network Neutrality: Network Neutrality: Discrimination of traffic management or pricing with anticompetitive purposes can be pursued by the Antitrust authority but the cases require many years and are very costly, something that favours large companies over small companies and startups.Under the "Net Neutrality" concept, some ex ante principles are codified and a judicial route, far simpler and more direct, is defined, when compared with an antitrust case.

They pointed out that most features in the lowest level of a communications system have costs for all higher-layer clients, even if those clients do not need the features, and are redundant if the clients have to re-implement the features on an end-to-end basis.

Proponents of net neutrality see this as an important component of an "open Internet", wherein policies such as equal treatment of data and open web standards allow those using the Internet to easily communicate, and conduct business and activities without interference from a third party.

In contrast, a "closed Internet" refers to the opposite situation, wherein established persons, corporations, or governments favour certain uses, restrict access to necessary web standards, artificially degrade some services, or explicitly filter out content.

It can be defined with the following analogy to Network Neutrality: Network Neutrality: Discrimination of traffic management or pricing with anticompetitive purposes can be pursued by the Antitrust authority but the cases require many years and are very costly, something that favours large companies over small companies and startups.

Under the "Net Neutrality" concept, some ex ante principles are codified and a judicial route, far simpler and more direct, is defined, when compared with an antitrust case.

For example, landline telephone network employs admission control to limit user demand on the network core by refusing to create a circuit for the requested connection.