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20-Jan-2020 09:56

Originally they used rotary converters, a few of which are even still in operation, but most were supplanted first by mercury arc rectifiers and then by semiconductor rectifiers.

Because electrical power is equal to voltage times current, the relatively low voltages in existing DC systems imply relatively high currents.

There are many other voltage systems used for railway electrification systems around the world, and the list of railway electrification systems covers both standard voltage and non-standard voltage systems.

The permissible range of voltages allowed for the standardised voltages is as stated in standards BS EN 50163 Railways must operate at variable speeds.

Speed was controlled by connecting the traction motors in various series-parallel combinations, by varying the traction motors' fields, and by inserting and removing starting resistances to limit motor current.

Motors have very little room for electrical insulation so they generally have low voltage ratings.

If the DC power in the contact wire is to be supplied directly to the DC traction motors, minimizing resistive losses requires thick, short supply cables/wires and closely spaced converter stations.

The distance between feeder stations on a 750 V third-rail system is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi).

Railway electrification has constantly increased in the past decades, and as of 2012, electrified tracks account for nearly one third of total tracks globally.

Until the mid 1950s this was only practical with the brush-type DC motor, although such DC can be supplied from an AC catenary via on-board electric power conversion.

Since such conversion was not well developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century, most early electrified railways used DC and many still do, particularly rapid transit (subways) and trams.

There has, however, been interest among railroad operators in returning to DC use at higher voltages than previously used.

At the same voltage, DC often has less loss than AC, and for this reason high-voltage direct current is already used on some bulk power transmission lines.

Railway electrification has constantly increased in the past decades, and as of 2012, electrified tracks account for nearly one third of total tracks globally.Until the mid 1950s this was only practical with the brush-type DC motor, although such DC can be supplied from an AC catenary via on-board electric power conversion.Since such conversion was not well developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century, most early electrified railways used DC and many still do, particularly rapid transit (subways) and trams.There has, however, been interest among railroad operators in returning to DC use at higher voltages than previously used.At the same voltage, DC often has less loss than AC, and for this reason high-voltage direct current is already used on some bulk power transmission lines.The distance between feeder stations at 3 k V is about 7.5 km (4.7 mi).